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Ophthalmology / Oftamaks
  1. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2015 Jul-Aug;48(4):432-6. doi: 10.1590/0037-8682-0065-2015.

Antibacterial, anti-swarming and anti-biofilm formation activities of Chamaemelum nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Kazemian H1Ghafourian S1Heidari H2Amiri P3Yamchi JK4Shavalipour A3Houri H3Maleki A1Sadeghifard N1.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) is widely used throughout the world, and has anti-inflammatory, deodorant, bacteriostatic, antimicrobial, carminative, sedative, antiseptic, anti-catarrhal, and spasmolytic properties. Because of the increasing incidence of drug-resistant bacteria, the development of natural antibacterial sources such as medical herbs for the treatment of infectious diseases is necessary. Extracts from different plant parts such as the leaves, flowers, fruit, and bark of Combretum albiflorum, Laurus nobilis , and Sonchus oleraceus were found to possess anti-quorum sensing (QS) activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of C. nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation.

METHODS:

The P. aeruginosa samples were isolated from patients with different types of infection, including wound infection, septicemia, and urinary tract infection. The flowers of C. nobile were dried and the extract was removed using a rotary device and then dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at pH 7.4. The microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this extract on P. aeruginosa , and biofilm inhibition was assayed.

RESULTS:

Eighty percent of the isolated samples (16/20) could form a biofilm, and most of these were isolated from wound infections. The biofilm inhibitory concentration of the C. nobile extract was 6.25-25mg/ml, whereas the MIC was 12.5-50mg/ml.

CONCLUSIONS:

The anti-QS property of C. nobile may play an important role in its antibacterial activity, thus offering an additional strategy in the fight against bacterial infections. However, molecular investigation is required to explore the exact mechanisms of the antibacterial action and functions of this phytocompound.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26312934

 

  1. Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39 Suppl 2:127-31.

The complex technology on products of German chamomile.

Barene I1Daberte IZvirgzdina LIriste V.

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Abstract

The German chamomile is an old herbal medicine, which is widely used in medical practice. The water and ethanol extracts of matricaria flowers are mainly used for their anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and spasmolytic properties. It is possible to prepare tea of pulverized matricaria flowers with 0.2 mm sized particles packed in tea bags. The investigation of anatomical diagnostical identification, qualitative and quantitative indices showed that matricaria top got after gathering flowers can be recommend as a herb for medical use. The thin-layer chromatographic research showed that matricaria top contains 9 flavonoids (2 more than flowers) and it's essential oil--10 components (one more than flowers). The technological study of practical use of matricaria top approved the possibility to prepare the fluid extract of matricaria top for external use. The results of investigations showed the possibility of complex use of Matricaria recutita cultivated in Latvia.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14617873

  1. Phytother Res. 2006 Jul;20(7):519-30.

A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.).

McKay DL1Blumberg JB.

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Abstract

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., Chamomilla recutita L., Matricaria chamomilla) is one of the most popular single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Chamomile tea, brewed from dried flower heads, has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes. Evidence-based information regarding the bioactivity of this herb is presented. The main constituents of the flowers include several phenolic compounds, primarily the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin, patuletin, luteolin and their glucosides. The principal components of the essential oil extracted from the flowers are the terpenoids alpha-bisabolol and its oxides and azulenes, including chamazulene. Chamomile has moderate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and significant antiplatelet activity in vitro. Animal model studies indicate potent antiinflammatory action, some antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering activities, as well as antispasmotic and anxiolytic effects. However, human studies are limited, and clinical trials examining the purported sedative properties of chamomile tea are absent. Adverse reactions to chamomile, consumed as a tisane or applied topically, have been reported among those with allergies to other plants in the daisy family, i.e. Asteraceae or Compositae

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16628544

 

  1. Planta Med. 2017 Jul;83(10):846-854. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-104391. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Chamomile Flower, Myrrh, and Coffee Charcoal, Components of a Traditional Herbal Medicinal Product, Diminish Proinflammatory Activation in Human Macrophages.

Vissiennon C1,2Hammoud D1,3Rodewald S4Fester K4Goos KH2Nieber K4Arnhold J1.

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Abstract

A traditional herbal medicinal product, containing myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal, has been used in Germany for the relief of gastrointestinal complaints for decades. Clinical studies suggest its use in the maintenance therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the clinical effects are not yet fully understood. The present study aims to elucidate immunopharmacological activities of myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal by studying the influence of each plant extract on gene expression and protein release of activated human macrophages. The plant extracts effect on gene and protein expression of activated human monocyte-derived macrophages was investigated by microarray gene expression analysis and assessment of the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators (TNFα, chemokine CXCL13, and interleukin-10) using an ELISA test system. The extracts of myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal influenced gene expression of activated human macrophages within the cytokine/chemokine signaling pathway. Particularly, chemokine gene expression was suppressed. Subsequently, the production of CXCL13 and, to a minor extent, cytokine TNFαwas inhibited by all herbal extracts. Chamomile flower and coffee charcoal extracts enhanced interleukin-10 release from activated macrophages. The observed effects on protein release were comparable to the effect of budesonide, which decreased TNFα and CXCL13 and enhanced interleukin-10 release. The components of the herbal medicinal product influence the activity of activated human macrophages on both gene and protein level. The induced alterations within chemokine/cytokine signaling could contribute to a positive effect on the immunological homeostasis, which is disturbed in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28264206

 

  1. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015 Oct 28;9:2019-26. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S90778. eCollection 2015.

Aloe vera gel facilitates re-epithelialization of corneal alkali burn in normal and diabetic rats.

Atiba A1Wasfy T2Abdo W3Ghoneim A2Kamal T4Shukry M5.

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Abstract

PURPOSE:

To investigate the efficacy of topical applied aloe vera (AV) and to facilitate the repair of the standardized alkaline corneal ulcer in normal and diabetic rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The corneal alkali-burn injury model was established unilaterally in Wistar rats by filter paper saturated with 0.01 M NaOH contacting the eyes for 45 seconds. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal AV (NAV), diabetic control (DC), and diabetic AV (DAV). NAV and DAV groups were treated with AV gel eye drops four times daily, and NC and DC groups were treated with normal saline for 3 days. Corneal epithelial wound closure and degree of edema were recorded using slit lamp and optical coherence tomography at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours postwounding. Histological examination was conducted to evaluate the degree of inflammation and the healing effect.

RESULTS:

Corneal epithelial wound healing was better in the NAV group than in the NC group, and it was significantly higher in the DAV group than in the DC group (P<0.05). In comparison to the DC group, DAV treated with AV demonstrated a marked reduction in edema at 48 and 72 hours. Histologically, corneal re-epithelialization was complete and higher in DAV group than that in DC group; moreover, the inflammatory cells were increased in DC group than DAV group (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION:

This study demonstrated the efficacy of AV for enhanced corneal re-epithelialization, as well as reduced inflammatory response after alkali burn in rats; therefore, it could be useful as a therapy for diabetic keratopathy.

KEYWORDS:

aloe vera; cornea; diabetes; epithelium; wound healing

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26604672

 

  1. J Med Assoc Thai. 2000 Apr;83(4):417-25.

Therapeutic effects of Aloe vera on cutaneous microcirculation and wound healing in second degree burn model in rats.

Somboonwong J1Thanamittramanee SJariyapongskul APatumraj S.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To demonstrate the microcirculatory and wound healing effects of Aloe vera on induced second degree burn wounds in rats.

METHOD:

A total of 48 male Wistar rats were equally divided into 4 groups as follows: sham controls, untreated burn-wound rats, those treated with once-daily application of normal saline (NSS) and those treated with once-daily application of lyophilized Aloe vera gel. The animals in each group were equally subdivided into 2 subgroups for the study of cutaneous microcirculation and wound healing on day 7 and 14 after burn. Dorsal skinfold chamber preparation and intravital fluorescence microscopic technique were performed to examine dermal microvascular changes, including arteriolar diameter, postcapillary venular permeability and leukocyte adhesion on postcapillary venules.

RESULTS:

On day 7, the vasodilation and increased postcapillary venular permeability as encountered in the untreated burn were found to be reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in both the NSS- and Aloe vera-treated groups, but to a greater extent in the latter. Leukocyte adhesion was not different among the untreated, NSS- and Aloe vera-treated groups. On day 14, vasoconstriction occurred after the wound had been left untreated. Only in the Aloe vera-treated groups, was arteriolar diameter increased up to normal condition and postcapillary venular permeability was not different from the sham controls. The amount of leukocyte adhesion was also less observed compared to the untreated and NSS- treated groups. Besides, the healing area of the Aloe vera-treated wound was better than that of the untreated and NSS- treated groups during 7 and 14 days after burn.

CONCLUSION:

Aloe vera could exhibit the actions of both anti-inflammation and wound healing promotion when applied on a second degree burn wound.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10808702

 

  1. J Altern Complement Med. 2000 Dec;6(6):499-508.

Prospective cohort trial of Euphrasia single-dose eye drops in conjunctivitis.

Stoss M1Michels CPeter EBeutke RGorter RW.

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Eye drops made from Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne have been used in anthroposophical medicine for more than 70 years for the structuring of the fluid organism in the eye, especially in inflammatory and catarrhal conjunctivitis. The aim of this prospective cohort trial was to describe the efficacy and tolerability of these eye drops in a community-based setting. To evaluate these questions, prospective cohort studies are the best method. This enables the investigator to attain real insights as to which treatment administered related to specific results in a specific group of patients.

DESIGN:

Prospective, open label, one-armed, multicentered, multinational cohort trial.

SETTING:

The trial was carried out in the clinics of 12 experienced anthroposophical general practitioners and ophthalmologists in Germany and Switzerland.

PATIENTS:

Patients with inflammatory or catarrhal conjunctivitis, treated with Euphrasia single-dose eye drops were included in the trial.

INTERVENTION:

One drop of Euphrasia single-dose eye drops 1-5 times a day was prescribed. The prescription was determined solely by medical therapeutic needs.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Efficacy variables were: redness, swelling, secretion, burning of the conjunctiva, and foreign body sensation. Tolerability variables were: conjunctival reddening, burning of the conjunctiva, foreign body sensation, and veiled vision. All symptoms were given for the right or left eye separately, with degree of severity in relation to baseline after approximately 7 days (+/-3 days; first follow-up examination) and after approximately 14 days (+/-3 days; second follow-up examination). If, after the first follow-up, all symptoms had disappeared, no second follow-up was done.

RESULTS:

Sixty-five (65) patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the protocol evaluation. A complete recovery was seen in 53 patients (81.5%) and a clear improvement in 11 patients (17.0%). A slight worsening could only be determined in 1 patient in the second week of treatment (1.5%). No serious adverse events were observed during the entire trial. The efficacy and tolerability were evaluated by the patients and doctors as "good" to "very good" in more than 85%.

CONCLUSION:

Euphrasia single-dose eye drops can effectively and safely be used for various conjunctival conditions by general practitioners and ophthalmologists. A dosage of one drop three times a day seems to be the general prescribed dosage.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11152054

 

 

 

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