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Guideline Title

Urethritis. In: Guidelines on urological infections.

Bibliographic Source(s)

Urethritis. In: Grabe M, Bjerklund-Johansen TE, Botto H, Wullt B, Çek M, Naber KG, Pickard RS, Tenke P, Wagenlehner F. Guidelines on urological infections. Arnhem, The Netherlands: European Association of Urology (EAU); 2011 Mar. p. 63-5. [11 references]

Guideline Status

This is the current release of the guideline.

This guideline updates a previous version: Urethritis. In: Grabe M, Bishop MC, Bjerklund-Johansen TE, Botto H, Çek M, Lobel B, Naber KG, Palou J, Tenke P, Wagenlehner F. Guidelines on urological infections. Arnhem, The Netherlands: European Association of Urology (EAU); 2009 Mar. p. 72-4. [11 references]





Urologiia. 2011 Mar-Apr;(2):63-6.

[Cefixim: clinical pharmacology and role in therapy of urogenital infections].

[Article in Russian]

Rafal'skiĭ VVDivgan' EVDerevitskiĭ AV.


Cefixim belongs to oral cephalosporins of the third generation and has the longest half-life period among all oral cephalosporins and, therefore can be taken once a day. Moreover, cefixim presents in high concentrations in the urine, kidneys and urinary tract. In vitro, this drug has high activity against basic pathogens of urogenital infection. A randomized clinical trial has found that cefixim has higher clinical and microbiological efficacy than ciprofloxacin in patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis.



[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]





Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010 Aug;74(8):930-3. Epub 2010 Jun 17.

Acute otitis media: to follow-up or treat?

Stevanovic TKomazec ZLemajic-Komazec SJovic R.


Dr Stevanovic Pediatric Office, Zrenjanin, Serbia.


Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common diagnosis for which antibiotics are prescribed in children. However, due to their widespread use, we are witnesses to increased development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of antibiotic treatment in patients with AOM. Our study included 314 children, aged between 2 months and 6 years. Children were divided into two groups: the first group included children with less severe forms of AOM, who received symptomatic therapy and "wait-and-see" approach (237 children); the second group presented with purulent ear infection and received antibiotic treatment from the beginning (77 children). After symptomatic therapy, resolution of the disease, without use of any antibiotics, was established in 61% of patients, compared to the overall sample of children with AOM. None of the children developed complications that would require surgical treatment. In the second group of children, receiving antibiotics, almost the same therapeutic effects (80%) were achieved with the use of amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefixime, while the worst results were obtained after using azithromycin. The wait-and-see approach is recommended in forms of AOM without serious signs and symptoms, because it significantly reduces the use of antibiotics and their potential adverse effects.

Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.




Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010 Jan;8(1):15-21.

Community-acquired upper respiratory tract infections and the role of third-generation oral cephalosporins.

Hedrick JA.


Medical Director Kentucky Pediatric and Adult Research, 201 S. 5th St Bardstown, KY 40004, USA. [email protected]


Common community-acquired infections include those of the upper respiratory tract. In the 1990s, the antimicrobial treatment of upper respiratory tract infections focused on penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, following the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, a decrease in invasive pneumococcal disease occurred, and in the case of otitis media a shift towards Haemophilus influenzae as the predominant causative pathogen was observed. Future antimicrobial therapy for outpatient upper respiratory tract infections may need to focus on pathogens such as penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae, beta-lactamase-negative amoxicillin-resistant H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In these circumstances, third-generation oral cephalosporins, such as cefixime and cefdinir, could be increasingly used as an optional first-line therapy in community practice for upper respiratory tract infections suspected to be caused by these key pathogens, as an alternative to amoxicillin-clavulanate.



[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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